Recent advances in nanoformulation development of Ritonavir, a key protease inhibitor used in the treatment of HIV-AIDS

Srinivas Reddy Jitta, Navya Ajitkumar Bhaskaran, Shirleen Miriam Marques, Lalit Kumar, Lalit Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: AIDS is one of the world’s most serious public health challenges. Protease inhibitors are key components of AIDS treatment regimen. Ritonavir is a well-known protease inhibitor with low aqueous solubility belonging to BCS class II category. Some of the severe adverse effects associated with this drug restricted its use in the treatment of AIDS. However, several attempts were made by researchers in the past to enhance the oral bioavailability of Ritonavir. Areas covered: The current review mainly focuses on the adverse effects of Ritonavir and recent approaches followed by researchers on the development of nanoformulations of Ritonavir. Further, various patents filed on Ritonavir have also been discussed in the current review. Expert opinion: Most research on nanoformulation development for Ritonavir is mainly focused on enhancing the solubility and oral bioavailability of the drug. Some of the researchers focused on the lymphatic targeting of the drug in order to bypass the hepatic metabolism of the drug. However, most of the research topics did not cover the toxicity evaluation of the developed formulation. Since the major issue of Ritonavir is not only oral bioavailability but also drug-induced toxicity, this area needs to be considered during the formulation development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1133-1148
Number of pages16
JournalExpert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Volume19
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmaceutical Science

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