Background: Thirty minutes has been considered as the threshold for tolerable warm ischemic time (WIT). Recent reports demonstrate recovery of renal function after longer WIT. We assessed renal histology according to different WIT in a 2-kidney porcine model. Methods: Twelve female pigs were randomized to an open or laparoscopic group. Each pig was further randomized within each group to clamping the left renal artery for 5, 15, 30, 45, 60 or 180 minutes. Preclamping left renal biopsies were performed on each pig. The contralateral kidney in each animal was used as an individual control. On postoperative day 14, all animals underwent bilateral nephrectomies. Preclamping left renal biopsies and all renal specimens were evaluated by a blinded veterinary pathologist. Results: One pig died in the open group after 180 minutes of clamping. Histopathology did not show any significant changes between the two groups and across clamp times from 5 to 60 minutes. After 180 minutes of laparoscopic clamping, there was evidence of diffuse necrosis. Interpretation: Sixty minutes of ischemia did not show any permanent renal damage in both groups. Further studies are needed to verify these findings in humans. A prolonged ischemic time without permanent renal damage would be helpful in partial nephrectomy. Warm ischemic time of 180 minutes exceeded the renal ischemic burden based on histological features.
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