Objectives: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in children. With improved supportive care and a better understanding of the disease biology, it is now a curable cancer in the developed world. However, in low-income countries, the cure rate remains relatively poor. We report our experience on the survival of children with ALL treated on the MRD-based risk-stratified UKALL 2003 protocol, from a center in South India. Methods: All consecutive children diagnosed with ALL between years 2013 and 2019 were included in this retrospective study. All received uniform treatment as per the UKALL 2003 protocol based on NCI risk and post-induction MRD status. All the details including the type of leukemia, NCI risk status, date of diagnosis, treatment start date, the regimen, MRD status, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, and complications were captured. Analysis was done using prism GraphPad version 8.0. Results: A total of 107 children were started on treatment during this period. The majority of them were boys (68/107). Fifty-nine of them were NCI standard risk (55%). B-ALL was the most common type (92%).Total of 56/107(52.3%) children received treatment under the government’s insurance scheme for low-income bracket. The post-induction MRD was performed in 95/107 children. It was >0.01% in 22% (21/95) of children. Five (4.7%) children relapsed so far with a mean follow up of 27 months from the diagnosis. There were 17 deaths (15.9%). The EFS at 3 years was 85% (95% CI 75% to 92%). Conclusion: It is feasible to deliver chemotherapy as per the UKALL2003 protocol without any modifications in resource-limited setting. The survival rates have significantly improved over the years in our center from 5 years EFS of 60% in 2010 and now to 3 year EFS of 85%. It is important to note that there was no treatment abandonment in our cohort.
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