Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder involving cognitive dysfunction like short-term memory and behavioral changes as the disease progresses due to other unaltered physiological factors. The solution for this problem is Multi-targeted Drugs (MTDs), which can affect multiple determinants to realize the multifunctional effects. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine are FDA-approved drugs used to treat AD symptomatically. The key objective of this review is to understand multitargeted bioactive natural molecules that could be considered as leads for further development as effective drugs for treating AD, along with understanding its pharmacology and structure-activity relationship (SAR). Understanding the molecular mechanism of the AD pathophysiology, the role of existing drugs, treatment of AD via amyloid beta (Aβ) plaque, and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) inhibition by natural bioactive molecules were also discussed in the review. The current quest and recent advancements with natural bioactive compounds like physostigmine, resveratrol, curcumin, and catechins, along with the study of in silico SAR, were reported in the present study. This review summarises the structural properties required for bioactive natural molecules to show anti-Alzheimer’s activity by emphasizing on SAR of several bioactive natural molecules targeting various AD pathologies, their key molecular interactions that are critical for target specificity, their role as multitargeted ligands, used with adjunctive therapy for AD followed by related US patents granted recently. This article highlights the significance of the structural features of natural bioactive molecules in the treatment of AD and establishes a connection between them. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Structural Biology
- Molecular Biology