Regenerative medicine is considered as an alternative approach to healthcare. Owing to their pluripotent abilities and their relative lack of ethical and legal issues, adult stem cells are considered as optimal candidates for use in the treatment of various diseases. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are among the most promising candidates for clinical applications as they have expressed a higher degree of plasticity in vitro. Many investigators have begun to examine how bone marrow stem cells might be used to rebuild damaged tissues. The systemic administration of cells for therapeutic applications requires efficient migration and homing of cells to the target site. Cell adhesion molecules and their ligands, chemokines, extracellular matrix components and specialized bone marrow niches all participate in the proper regulation of this process. MSCs suppress the pathophysiological process that is mediated by chronic inflammation and contributes to a modification of the microenvironment and tissue regeneration. Due to the intricacy of the mesenchymal stem cell, there is ever-increasing amount of data emerging about their migration and regenerative mechanisms. Many factors influence MSC mobilization and their homing to injured tissues. This review summarizes the current clinical and pre-clinical data available in literature regarding the use of MSC in tissue repair and their prospective therapeutic role in various diseases and the underlying repair mechanisms will be discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Developmental Biology
- Cell Biology