Serologic Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Indian Women of Child Bearing Age and Effects of Social and Environmental Factors

Sarman Singh, Arshi Munawwar, Sugandhi Rao, Sanjay Mehta, Naba Kumar Hazarika

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background:Seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in women of child bearing age has remained a contentious issue in the Indian subcontinent. Different laboratories have used different patient recruitment criteria, methods and variable results, making these data difficult to compare.Aim:To map the point-prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in India.Material and Methods:In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1464 women of fertile age were recruited from 4 regions using similar recruitment plans. This included women from northern (203), southern (512), eastern (250) and western (501) regions of India. All samples were transported to a central laboratory in Delhi and tested using VIDAS technology. Their age, parity, eating habits and other demographic and clinical details were noted.Results:Most women were in the 18-25 years age group (48.3%), followed by 26-30 years (28.2%) and 31-35 years (13.66). Few (45) women older than 35 yr. were included. Overall prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was seen in 22.40%, with significantly more in married women (25.8%) as compared to single women (4.3%). Prevalence increased steadily with age: 18.1% in the 18-25 yr. age group to 40.5% in women older than 40 yr. The prevalence was high (66%) in those who resided in mud houses. Region-wise, the highest prevalence was observed in South India (37.3%) and the lowest (8.8%) in West Indian women. This difference was highly significant (P<0.001). Prevalence was 21.2% in East India and 19.7% in North India. The IgM positivity rate ranged from 0.4% to 2.9% in four study centers.Conclusions:This pan-India study shows a prevalence rate of 22.4% with a wide variation in four geographical regions ranging from as low as 8.8% to as high as 37.3%. The overall IgM positivity rate was 1.43%, indicating that an estimated 56,737-176,882 children per year are born in India with a possible risk of congenital toxoplasmosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2737
JournalPLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Volume8
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-01-2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Toxoplasma
India
Toxoplasmosis
Immunoglobulin M
Age Groups
Congenital Toxoplasmosis
Incidence
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Feeding Behavior
Parity
Patient Selection
Cross-Sectional Studies
Demography
Technology
Antibodies

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Singh, Sarman ; Munawwar, Arshi ; Rao, Sugandhi ; Mehta, Sanjay ; Hazarika, Naba Kumar. / Serologic Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Indian Women of Child Bearing Age and Effects of Social and Environmental Factors. In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2014 ; Vol. 8, No. 3.
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title = "Serologic Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Indian Women of Child Bearing Age and Effects of Social and Environmental Factors",
abstract = "Background:Seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in women of child bearing age has remained a contentious issue in the Indian subcontinent. Different laboratories have used different patient recruitment criteria, methods and variable results, making these data difficult to compare.Aim:To map the point-prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in India.Material and Methods:In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1464 women of fertile age were recruited from 4 regions using similar recruitment plans. This included women from northern (203), southern (512), eastern (250) and western (501) regions of India. All samples were transported to a central laboratory in Delhi and tested using VIDAS technology. Their age, parity, eating habits and other demographic and clinical details were noted.Results:Most women were in the 18-25 years age group (48.3{\%}), followed by 26-30 years (28.2{\%}) and 31-35 years (13.66). Few (45) women older than 35 yr. were included. Overall prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was seen in 22.40{\%}, with significantly more in married women (25.8{\%}) as compared to single women (4.3{\%}). Prevalence increased steadily with age: 18.1{\%} in the 18-25 yr. age group to 40.5{\%} in women older than 40 yr. The prevalence was high (66{\%}) in those who resided in mud houses. Region-wise, the highest prevalence was observed in South India (37.3{\%}) and the lowest (8.8{\%}) in West Indian women. This difference was highly significant (P<0.001). Prevalence was 21.2{\%} in East India and 19.7{\%} in North India. The IgM positivity rate ranged from 0.4{\%} to 2.9{\%} in four study centers.Conclusions:This pan-India study shows a prevalence rate of 22.4{\%} with a wide variation in four geographical regions ranging from as low as 8.8{\%} to as high as 37.3{\%}. The overall IgM positivity rate was 1.43{\%}, indicating that an estimated 56,737-176,882 children per year are born in India with a possible risk of congenital toxoplasmosis.",
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Serologic Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Indian Women of Child Bearing Age and Effects of Social and Environmental Factors. / Singh, Sarman; Munawwar, Arshi; Rao, Sugandhi; Mehta, Sanjay; Hazarika, Naba Kumar.

In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol. 8, No. 3, e2737, 01.01.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Serologic Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Indian Women of Child Bearing Age and Effects of Social and Environmental Factors

AU - Singh, Sarman

AU - Munawwar, Arshi

AU - Rao, Sugandhi

AU - Mehta, Sanjay

AU - Hazarika, Naba Kumar

PY - 2014/1/1

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N2 - Background:Seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in women of child bearing age has remained a contentious issue in the Indian subcontinent. Different laboratories have used different patient recruitment criteria, methods and variable results, making these data difficult to compare.Aim:To map the point-prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in India.Material and Methods:In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1464 women of fertile age were recruited from 4 regions using similar recruitment plans. This included women from northern (203), southern (512), eastern (250) and western (501) regions of India. All samples were transported to a central laboratory in Delhi and tested using VIDAS technology. Their age, parity, eating habits and other demographic and clinical details were noted.Results:Most women were in the 18-25 years age group (48.3%), followed by 26-30 years (28.2%) and 31-35 years (13.66). Few (45) women older than 35 yr. were included. Overall prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was seen in 22.40%, with significantly more in married women (25.8%) as compared to single women (4.3%). Prevalence increased steadily with age: 18.1% in the 18-25 yr. age group to 40.5% in women older than 40 yr. The prevalence was high (66%) in those who resided in mud houses. Region-wise, the highest prevalence was observed in South India (37.3%) and the lowest (8.8%) in West Indian women. This difference was highly significant (P<0.001). Prevalence was 21.2% in East India and 19.7% in North India. The IgM positivity rate ranged from 0.4% to 2.9% in four study centers.Conclusions:This pan-India study shows a prevalence rate of 22.4% with a wide variation in four geographical regions ranging from as low as 8.8% to as high as 37.3%. The overall IgM positivity rate was 1.43%, indicating that an estimated 56,737-176,882 children per year are born in India with a possible risk of congenital toxoplasmosis.

AB - Background:Seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in women of child bearing age has remained a contentious issue in the Indian subcontinent. Different laboratories have used different patient recruitment criteria, methods and variable results, making these data difficult to compare.Aim:To map the point-prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in India.Material and Methods:In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1464 women of fertile age were recruited from 4 regions using similar recruitment plans. This included women from northern (203), southern (512), eastern (250) and western (501) regions of India. All samples were transported to a central laboratory in Delhi and tested using VIDAS technology. Their age, parity, eating habits and other demographic and clinical details were noted.Results:Most women were in the 18-25 years age group (48.3%), followed by 26-30 years (28.2%) and 31-35 years (13.66). Few (45) women older than 35 yr. were included. Overall prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was seen in 22.40%, with significantly more in married women (25.8%) as compared to single women (4.3%). Prevalence increased steadily with age: 18.1% in the 18-25 yr. age group to 40.5% in women older than 40 yr. The prevalence was high (66%) in those who resided in mud houses. Region-wise, the highest prevalence was observed in South India (37.3%) and the lowest (8.8%) in West Indian women. This difference was highly significant (P<0.001). Prevalence was 21.2% in East India and 19.7% in North India. The IgM positivity rate ranged from 0.4% to 2.9% in four study centers.Conclusions:This pan-India study shows a prevalence rate of 22.4% with a wide variation in four geographical regions ranging from as low as 8.8% to as high as 37.3%. The overall IgM positivity rate was 1.43%, indicating that an estimated 56,737-176,882 children per year are born in India with a possible risk of congenital toxoplasmosis.

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