Objective: Studies addressing sex differences in the symptoms and course of bipolar affective disorder had been investigated across different phase of bipolar affective disorder. There are few studies in manic phase that have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we investigated sex difference in symptom presentation of manic episode. Methods: A total of 150 male and 50 female subjects meeting criteria for manic episode according to International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision Diagnostic Criteria for Research, giving written informed consent, were included for the study. Those with comorbid major medical or psychiatric disorders were excluded. All the patients were assessed on Scale for Manic States. Results: Multivariate analysis of variance using all the items of Scale for Manic Symptoms showed significant sex difference (Pillai's Trace F 20,179 = 5.154, P < .001), with large effect size (η 2 = .365). In men, there was significantly higher motor activity, psychosis, grandiosity, contact, and humor, whereas mood lability, depressed mood, guilt, suicide, anxiety, and dress scores were higher in women. Discriminant analysis showed that 84% of men and 72% of women could be correctly classified using the Scale for Manic Symptoms. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed anxiety, guilt, and dress positively predicted female sex and the model explained 24% to 36% of variance. Conclusion: Symptom presentation of mania differs across sex and a predominance of anxiety and depressive symptoms was found in women, whereas increased psychomotor activity was prevalent in men.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Psychiatry and Mental health
- Clinical Psychology