The aims of our present work were to assess whether treatment with either ischemic preconditioning (IPC) or 17β-estradiol or both combined produce proarrhythmic or antiarrhythmic effects, and whether opening of the sarcolemmal or mitochondrial KATP channels is relatable to this effect; to assess biochemically the effects of IPC and/or 17β-estradiol on oxidant stress and antioxidant defenses in the myocardium; to examine the effects of nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) pretreatment in rabbits treated with either IPC or 17β-estradiol (because 17β-estradiol evoked NO release has been implicated in KATP activation and IPC); and examine the effects of ischemic preconditioning and 17β-estradiol on myocardial energy metabolism during ischemia and reperfusion in a well-standardized model of reperfusion arrhythmias in anesthetized adult male New Zealand White rabbits (n = 124) subjected to 30 minutes occlusion of the left coronary artery followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion.Pretreatment with either 17β-estradiol (10 μg/kg, i.v.) or one cycle of ischemic preconditioning prior to the period of coronary occlusion offers significant infarct size reduction (18.6 ± 2.2% and 19.4 ± 1.9%, respectively versus 40.1 ± 3.9% in saline control and 39.2 ± 3.2% in vehicle control groups; P < 0.01) and antiarrhythmic effects. Both 17β-estradiol and ischemic preconditioning treatment significantly attenuated the incidence of life-threatening arrhythmias like sustained VT (13% and 13%, respectively versus 100% in saline control and 100% in vehicle control groups; P < 0.001) and other arrhythmias (25% and 25%, respectively versus 100% in saline control and 100% in vehicle control groups; P < 0.001), and were quite effective in increasing the number of animals that survived without developing any arrhythmia during ischemia and reperfusion. 5-hydroxydecanoate(5-HD; 5 mg/kg, i.v.) alone offered no cardioprotective and antiarrhythmic activities. Pretreatment with 5-HD but not HMR 1883 (3 mg/kg, i.v.) abolished the beneficial effects of 17β-estradiol and ischemia preconditioning on reperfusion-induced arrhythmias and cardioprotection suggesting that such effects have been achieved via the selective activation of cardiomyocyte mitochondrial KATP channels rather than sarcolemmal KATP channels. The reduced reperfusion arrhythmic incidence and durations induced by estrogen was not significantly altered by ICI 182 720 (2.5 mg/kg, i.v.). The lack of effect of ICI 182 720 on antiarrhythmic and infarct-limiting effects of 17β-estradiol and ischemic preconditioning suggest that these favorable effects are rapid, direct, and non-genomic effects. This study demonstrates similarities between 17β-estradiol and ischemic preconditioning of the rabbit myocardium in terms of cardioprotection, antiarrhythmic, and metabolic activities. Ischemic preconditioning and 17β-estradiol appear to share a final common effector; the mitochondrial KATP channel.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology|
|Publication status||Published - 01-02-2006|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine