Background and Aim: Mucositis, one of the vulnerabilities of chemotherapy, affects the physiological activities and therapeutic strategies of patients because it can affect the normal cell population. Etoposide is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent for cancers such as oral, lung, and gastrointestinal. In addition to the abnormal metabolic processes in the body caused by tumorigenesis, new metabolic alterations can occur, such as oxidative stress, antioxidant imbalance, and inflammatory reactions, all of which can contribute to existing patient vulnerability. Therapeutic adjuvants can help overcome these toxic effects. Spondias pinnata is a tropical tree omnipresent in the coastal and Western Ghat section of India that is used for culinary purposes and as a local analgesic. Therefore, we aimed to study the anti-inflammatory effects of S. pinnata in an etoposide-induced mucositis rat model. Materials and Methods: Small intestinal tissue homogenates from albino Wistar rats were used to estimate the levels of glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO), and activities of total antioxidant (TAO), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Na+-K+ ATPase. The animals were grouped into: (1) normal control, (2) etoposide-induced mucositis (65 mg/kg bodyweight, single IP dose), (3) S. pinnata control group, and (4) etoposide followed by S. pinnata bark extract (200 mg/kg bodyweight, once in a day). Animals were sacrificed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h and compared with that of the normal control group (n=6). Statistical analysis was performed using EZR software. Results: We observed a significant decrease in the TAO and GSH levels with a marked increase in NO, MPO, and Na+-K+ ATPase activity in the mucositis group. A tendency to recover from the decreased TAO and GSH levels existed in the treated group, showing the protective effects of S. pinnata bark extract against mucositis. In addition, this extract also showed anti-inflammatory effects as reflected by the recovery in MPO levels at the end of 96 h. Maintenance of Na+-K+ ATPase activity in the treated group demonstrates the protective effects of the extract against the increased levels observed in the etoposide-induced mucositis group. Conclusion: This study revealed the protective effects of S. pinnata bark extract against the oxidative and inflammatory changes that occurred during the development of mucositis. This would decrease the pathological burden during chemotherapy and prevent any hurdles in therapeutic modalities.
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