Stimulation of cytoprotective autophagy and components of mitochondrial biogenesis / proteostasis in response to ionizing radiation as a credible pro-survival strategy

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Abstract

The present study illustrates mitochondria-mediated impact of ionizing radiation which is paralleled by activation of several pro-adaptive responses in normal human dermal fibroblast cells. Irradiation of cells with X-rays (5 Gy) led to an increase in fragmentation and mitochondrial mass. Distinct temporal changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were noted in response to radiation, which was associated with depletion in mitochondrial membrane potential followed by decrease in ATP levels. Long Amplicon-Polymerase Chain Reaction (LA-PCR) analysis showed time-dependent increase in mitochondrial DNA damage that preceded mitochondrial ROS generation. Irradiation of cells led to an initial G2/M arrest at 8 h that persisted till 16 h, with subsequent block at G0/G1 measured at 48 and 72 h time points. Interestingly, cells activated autophagy as a countermeasure against radiation-mediated cellular insults and aided in removal of damaged mitochondria. Blocking autophagy using 3-methyladenine led to cell death via activation of enhanced ROS, PARP-1 and caspase 3 cleavage. Upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis factors Nrf1/PGC-1α, following irradiation was observed. Irradiated cells exhibited an increase in the phosphorylation of GCN2, PERK and eIF2α that might be responsible for the up-regulation of ATF4 and CHOP thereby regulating autophagy and components of integrated stress response. Apart from this, we measured accumulation of mitochondrial chaperones (HSP60/HSP10) and ATF5 which is a major molecule involved in mitochondrial stress. Taken together, mitochondria are one of the major cytoplasmic targets for ionizing radiation and possibly act as an early indicator of cellular insult. The findings also show that stressed mitochondria might influence endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related signalling leading to the activation of adaptive mechanisms like cytoprotective autophagy, and molecules responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and protein quality control in order to replenish mitochondrial pool and maintain cellular homeostasis.

Original languageEnglish
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 01-01-2020

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Mitochondria
Ionizing radiation
Autophagy
Organelle Biogenesis
Ionizing Radiation
Cells
Reactive Oxygen Species
Survival
Chemical activation
Irradiation
Radiation
Up-Regulation
Phosphorylation
Molecules
Polymerase chain reaction
Cell death
Fibroblasts
Mitochondrial DNA
Caspase 3
Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "Stimulation of cytoprotective autophagy and components of mitochondrial biogenesis / proteostasis in response to ionizing radiation as a credible pro-survival strategy",
abstract = "The present study illustrates mitochondria-mediated impact of ionizing radiation which is paralleled by activation of several pro-adaptive responses in normal human dermal fibroblast cells. Irradiation of cells with X-rays (5 Gy) led to an increase in fragmentation and mitochondrial mass. Distinct temporal changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were noted in response to radiation, which was associated with depletion in mitochondrial membrane potential followed by decrease in ATP levels. Long Amplicon-Polymerase Chain Reaction (LA-PCR) analysis showed time-dependent increase in mitochondrial DNA damage that preceded mitochondrial ROS generation. Irradiation of cells led to an initial G2/M arrest at 8 h that persisted till 16 h, with subsequent block at G0/G1 measured at 48 and 72 h time points. Interestingly, cells activated autophagy as a countermeasure against radiation-mediated cellular insults and aided in removal of damaged mitochondria. Blocking autophagy using 3-methyladenine led to cell death via activation of enhanced ROS, PARP-1 and caspase 3 cleavage. Upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis factors Nrf1/PGC-1α, following irradiation was observed. Irradiated cells exhibited an increase in the phosphorylation of GCN2, PERK and eIF2α that might be responsible for the up-regulation of ATF4 and CHOP thereby regulating autophagy and components of integrated stress response. Apart from this, we measured accumulation of mitochondrial chaperones (HSP60/HSP10) and ATF5 which is a major molecule involved in mitochondrial stress. Taken together, mitochondria are one of the major cytoplasmic targets for ionizing radiation and possibly act as an early indicator of cellular insult. The findings also show that stressed mitochondria might influence endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related signalling leading to the activation of adaptive mechanisms like cytoprotective autophagy, and molecules responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and protein quality control in order to replenish mitochondrial pool and maintain cellular homeostasis.",
author = "Shubhankar Das and Joshi, {Manjunath B.} and Parashiva, {Guruprasad K.} and Rao, {Satish B.S.}",
year = "2020",
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T1 - Stimulation of cytoprotective autophagy and components of mitochondrial biogenesis / proteostasis in response to ionizing radiation as a credible pro-survival strategy

AU - Das, Shubhankar

AU - Joshi, Manjunath B.

AU - Parashiva, Guruprasad K.

AU - Rao, Satish B.S.

PY - 2020/1/1

Y1 - 2020/1/1

N2 - The present study illustrates mitochondria-mediated impact of ionizing radiation which is paralleled by activation of several pro-adaptive responses in normal human dermal fibroblast cells. Irradiation of cells with X-rays (5 Gy) led to an increase in fragmentation and mitochondrial mass. Distinct temporal changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were noted in response to radiation, which was associated with depletion in mitochondrial membrane potential followed by decrease in ATP levels. Long Amplicon-Polymerase Chain Reaction (LA-PCR) analysis showed time-dependent increase in mitochondrial DNA damage that preceded mitochondrial ROS generation. Irradiation of cells led to an initial G2/M arrest at 8 h that persisted till 16 h, with subsequent block at G0/G1 measured at 48 and 72 h time points. Interestingly, cells activated autophagy as a countermeasure against radiation-mediated cellular insults and aided in removal of damaged mitochondria. Blocking autophagy using 3-methyladenine led to cell death via activation of enhanced ROS, PARP-1 and caspase 3 cleavage. Upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis factors Nrf1/PGC-1α, following irradiation was observed. Irradiated cells exhibited an increase in the phosphorylation of GCN2, PERK and eIF2α that might be responsible for the up-regulation of ATF4 and CHOP thereby regulating autophagy and components of integrated stress response. Apart from this, we measured accumulation of mitochondrial chaperones (HSP60/HSP10) and ATF5 which is a major molecule involved in mitochondrial stress. Taken together, mitochondria are one of the major cytoplasmic targets for ionizing radiation and possibly act as an early indicator of cellular insult. The findings also show that stressed mitochondria might influence endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related signalling leading to the activation of adaptive mechanisms like cytoprotective autophagy, and molecules responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and protein quality control in order to replenish mitochondrial pool and maintain cellular homeostasis.

AB - The present study illustrates mitochondria-mediated impact of ionizing radiation which is paralleled by activation of several pro-adaptive responses in normal human dermal fibroblast cells. Irradiation of cells with X-rays (5 Gy) led to an increase in fragmentation and mitochondrial mass. Distinct temporal changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were noted in response to radiation, which was associated with depletion in mitochondrial membrane potential followed by decrease in ATP levels. Long Amplicon-Polymerase Chain Reaction (LA-PCR) analysis showed time-dependent increase in mitochondrial DNA damage that preceded mitochondrial ROS generation. Irradiation of cells led to an initial G2/M arrest at 8 h that persisted till 16 h, with subsequent block at G0/G1 measured at 48 and 72 h time points. Interestingly, cells activated autophagy as a countermeasure against radiation-mediated cellular insults and aided in removal of damaged mitochondria. Blocking autophagy using 3-methyladenine led to cell death via activation of enhanced ROS, PARP-1 and caspase 3 cleavage. Upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis factors Nrf1/PGC-1α, following irradiation was observed. Irradiated cells exhibited an increase in the phosphorylation of GCN2, PERK and eIF2α that might be responsible for the up-regulation of ATF4 and CHOP thereby regulating autophagy and components of integrated stress response. Apart from this, we measured accumulation of mitochondrial chaperones (HSP60/HSP10) and ATF5 which is a major molecule involved in mitochondrial stress. Taken together, mitochondria are one of the major cytoplasmic targets for ionizing radiation and possibly act as an early indicator of cellular insult. The findings also show that stressed mitochondria might influence endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related signalling leading to the activation of adaptive mechanisms like cytoprotective autophagy, and molecules responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and protein quality control in order to replenish mitochondrial pool and maintain cellular homeostasis.

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