Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime

Youngchul Ra, Paul Loeper, Rolf Reitz, Michael Andrie, Roger Krieger, David Foster, Russ Durrett, Venkatesh Gopalakrishnan, Alejandro Plazas, Richard Peterson, Patrick Szymkowicz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

63 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline (termed GDICI for Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition) in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. As an aid to plan engine experiments at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min), exploration of operating conditions was first performed numerically employing a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion. Operation ranges of a light-duty diesel engine operating with GDICI combustion with constraints of combustion efficiency, noise level (pressure rise rate) and emissions were identified as functions of injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation rate and the fuel split ratio of double-pulse injections. Parametric variation of the operation ranges was also investigated with respect to initial gas temperature, boost pressure and injection pressure. Following the modeling, experiments were performed under the conditions suggested by the numerical results in order to confirm the feasibility of GDICI operation at full load, as well as to validate the numerical simulations. The results showed good agreement between the experiments and the model predictions. Due to the high volatility and low cetane index of gasoline combined with reduction of combustion temperature through utilization of EGR, both PM and NOx emissions could be reduced to levels of about 0.1 g/kg-f while maintaining experimental gross ISFC at about 180 g/kw-hr. The numerical simulations helped to explain the in-cylinder spray combustion behavior and to identify characteristics of GDICI that differ from those of diesel-fueled operation. Maps of operable conditions were generated that allow extension of low-emission engine concepts to full load operation in high speed GDICI engine operation with fuel efficiencies comparable to those of corresponding diesel fuel operation while meeting emissions mandates in-cylinder.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1412-1430
Number of pages19
JournalSAE International Journal of Engines
Volume4
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 04-2011

Fingerprint

Direct injection
Gasoline
Ignition
Compaction
Engines
Temperature
Engine cylinders
Exhaust gas recirculation
Experiments
Computer simulation
Diesel fuels
Diesel engines
Computational fluid dynamics
Oxidation
Gases

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Fuel Technology

Cite this

Ra, Youngchul ; Loeper, Paul ; Reitz, Rolf ; Andrie, Michael ; Krieger, Roger ; Foster, David ; Durrett, Russ ; Gopalakrishnan, Venkatesh ; Plazas, Alejandro ; Peterson, Richard ; Szymkowicz, Patrick. / Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime. In: SAE International Journal of Engines. 2011 ; Vol. 4, No. 1. pp. 1412-1430.
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abstract = "An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline (termed GDICI for Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition) in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. As an aid to plan engine experiments at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min), exploration of operating conditions was first performed numerically employing a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion. Operation ranges of a light-duty diesel engine operating with GDICI combustion with constraints of combustion efficiency, noise level (pressure rise rate) and emissions were identified as functions of injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation rate and the fuel split ratio of double-pulse injections. Parametric variation of the operation ranges was also investigated with respect to initial gas temperature, boost pressure and injection pressure. Following the modeling, experiments were performed under the conditions suggested by the numerical results in order to confirm the feasibility of GDICI operation at full load, as well as to validate the numerical simulations. The results showed good agreement between the experiments and the model predictions. Due to the high volatility and low cetane index of gasoline combined with reduction of combustion temperature through utilization of EGR, both PM and NOx emissions could be reduced to levels of about 0.1 g/kg-f while maintaining experimental gross ISFC at about 180 g/kw-hr. The numerical simulations helped to explain the in-cylinder spray combustion behavior and to identify characteristics of GDICI that differ from those of diesel-fueled operation. Maps of operable conditions were generated that allow extension of low-emission engine concepts to full load operation in high speed GDICI engine operation with fuel efficiencies comparable to those of corresponding diesel fuel operation while meeting emissions mandates in-cylinder.",
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Ra, Y, Loeper, P, Reitz, R, Andrie, M, Krieger, R, Foster, D, Durrett, R, Gopalakrishnan, V, Plazas, A, Peterson, R & Szymkowicz, P 2011, 'Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime', SAE International Journal of Engines, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1412-1430. https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-1182

Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime. / Ra, Youngchul; Loeper, Paul; Reitz, Rolf; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Foster, David; Durrett, Russ; Gopalakrishnan, Venkatesh; Plazas, Alejandro; Peterson, Richard; Szymkowicz, Patrick.

In: SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 4, No. 1, 04.2011, p. 1412-1430.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Ra, Youngchul

AU - Loeper, Paul

AU - Reitz, Rolf

AU - Andrie, Michael

AU - Krieger, Roger

AU - Foster, David

AU - Durrett, Russ

AU - Gopalakrishnan, Venkatesh

AU - Plazas, Alejandro

AU - Peterson, Richard

AU - Szymkowicz, Patrick

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