Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an independent risk factor for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. There is limited data regarding the occurrence and impact of AKI in the setting of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH). Considering this, we sought to determine the incidence and risk factors for AKI in patients with SICH and to determine the role of AKI on SICH mortality in our population. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the data recorded in the stroke registry maintained by the Department of Neurosurgery, Kasturba Hospital, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education after ethical committee clearance. Information regarding clinical features, demographics, laboratory data, prescribing patterns, and the use of contrast-mediated imaging were collected. AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Logistic multivariate regression was used to determine predictors of AKI. Analysis of variance was used to measure the effect of AKI on SICH outcome. Results: Of 316 patients with SICH admitted to the hospital, 20% of patients developed AKI. It was found that risk factors for AKI were lower baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 SICH 2.2; P < 0.001) and infectious complications (odds ratio, 3.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.9–5.7; P < 0.001). The incidence of 30 days’ mortality was higher in the group with AKI (14% vs. 5.5%). There was a significant association between AKI severity and short-term mortality (P < 0.001). Patients with AKI had a lower Glasgow Coma Scale on admission (11.81 ± 3.17 vs. 10.83 ± 3.2) and discharge (12.44 ± 3.44 vs. 10.38 ± 3.2) compared to patients without AKI (P < 0.001). Greater severity of AKI was associated with worse neurologic outcome (P < 0.001). Discussion: Various studies in literature have evaluated the incidence of AKI after a stroke episode. The incidence of AKI was ranging from 8%–21% in those studies. In our study, we found that 20% of SICH patients developed AKI. The incidence of AKI in our study falls along the spectrum described in these previous studies. Conclusions: AKI is a common complication of SICH. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate at admission and infections were the significant risk factors. Patients with AKI had poor neurologic outcome and higher mortality and it increased with the severity of AKI.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology