Black Phosphorous has recently gained the attention in the field of 2D nanomaterials owing to its exceptional structure and properties. Specifically, its features like drug loading efficiency, biocompatibility, optical, mechanical, electrical, thermal and phototherapeutic properties contribute to its rising demand as potential alternative to the graphene-based 2D nanomaterials in biomedical applications. Though the BP's outlook appears promising, its practical applicability is highly challenging. In this review we have discussed the different strategies for synthesis of BP and then briefed its unique properties which renders it a potential platform for the biomedical application. We then discuss the importance of heterogeneous doping on improving the stability of BP against chemical degradation and enhancing its photoelectric properties. Meanwhile, BP-based nanoconjugates, stimuli responsive nanoplatforms, therapeutic, imaging and biosensing platforms are the domains of special and comprehensive interest for versatile biomedical applications of BP. The physicochemical interactions at the nano-bio interface like protein corona formation on the surface on nanoparticles due to interaction with the plasma proteins and others play a crucial role in the biological effects of BP. Hence, we have also discussed the recent studies on interactions between Black phosphorus based nanoconstructs with various biological molecules. Further, it is vital to consider the fact that, though biocompatible, BP-nanomaterials can induce inflammatory responses and exhibit toxicity in dose and time dependant manner. Therefore, we have briefed the biodegradation and toxicological aspects of BP to enlighten the readers about the safety and toxicity of black phosphorous. The future developments of this 2D nanomaterial will not only serve as a boon for oncology, but also functions as a potential nanoplatform for other biomedical applications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry
- Materials Chemistry