Objectives: Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke and accounts for 10–15% of all cases. The management of ICH has predominantly been directed towards medical management. Multiple trials have failed to prove the superiority of surgical evacuation over conservative methods. However, surgery in a carefully selected set of patients is beneficial in reducing mortality and limiting disability. In this article, we retrospectively analysed our ICH register to compare the outcomes of surgical and conservative management of patients <70 years having a clot volume above 30 ml. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analysed patients with ICH admitted at our centre between January 2015 and December 2017. A total of 119/624 patients with supratentorial hematoma volume >30 ml, GCS ≥ 5 and age less than 70 were included in this study. Results: The group was dichotomised into two groups A & B based on the management. Seventy-two (60.5%) patients underwent surgical intervention in group A and the remaining 47 (39.5%) were managed by best possible conservative methods in group B. The mean age in Group A was 51.01 years and 55.89 years in group B (P = 0.012). The volume of hematoma in the surgical group was 46.5 ± 14.9 ml in comparison to 38.53 ± 10.84 ml in the medically managed group (p = 0.002). Mortality at 90 days was 27/47 (57.44%) in the medically managed group while 23/72 (31.9%) in the surgical group (p = 0.006). Median mRS at discharge and 90 days were nearly identical and there was no significant difference in the dichotomized outcome among the two different management cohorts (p > 0.05). Mortality was the highest in the 30–50 ml medically managed group and >51 ml surgical group (p = 0.024). Age of the patient, GCS on presentation and medical management were independent predictors of mortality on logistic regression. The Cox Regression survival analysis of the two groups showed a clear survival advantage in the surgically managed group adjusting for age and GCS (p = 0.002) at 90 days. Conclusion: Surgical Evacuation of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage has a survival advantage at 90 days in moderate to large sized hematomas. It, however, did not demonstrate any quantifiable improvement in functional outcome. Surgical evacuation of moderate-sized hematomas reduces mortality caused by delayed perihematomal oedema.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology