Susceptibility of Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis to Chitosan, Chlorhexidine gluconate and their combination in vitro

N.V. Ballal, M. Kundabala, K.S. Bhat, S. Acharya, M. Ballal, R. Kumar, P.Y. Prakash

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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to analyse the sustain release of Chlorhexidine with Chitosan and to investigate the antimicrobial activity of 2% Chlorhexidine gel, 2% Chitosan gel and their combination against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis. Sustain release of Chlorhexidine with Chitosan was determined using UV spectrophotometer. Then the inoculae of these organisms were used to make the lawn culture on sabouraud's dextrose agar and blood agar plates. Wells were prepared in these lawn cultures and filled with 2% Chlorhexidine gel, 2% Chitosan gel and their combination. The agar plates were incubated overnight at 37°C and the zone of inhibition was examined after 48 h. Release of Chlorhexidine with Chitosan was better than plain Chlorhexidine release. Combination of Chlorhexidine and Chitosan showed maximum inhibitory zone for C. albicans (25.2 mm) and E. faecalis (26.0 mm). Plain Chlorhexidine gel showed intermediate inhibitory zone for C. albicans (20.6 mm) and E. faecalis (21.4 mm) and plain Chitosan gel showed minimum inhibitory zone for C. albicans (16.6 mm) and E. faecalis (11.0 mm). Carbopol which served as control did not have any antimicrobial effect. The present study suggests that 2% Chlorhexidine gel in combination with 2% Chitosan gel has the highest antimicrobial effect against C. albicans and E. faecalis compared with 2% Chlorhexidine gel or 2% Chitosan gel alone. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Australian Society of Endodontology.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29-33
Number of pages5
JournalAustralian Endodontic Journal
Volume35
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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Chlorhexidine
Enterococcus faecalis
Chitosan
Candida albicans
Gels
Agar
chlorhexidine gluconate
In Vitro Techniques
Endodontics
Glucose

Cite this

@article{8097050d7bfc4f92970db591ce1008e1,
title = "Susceptibility of Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis to Chitosan, Chlorhexidine gluconate and their combination in vitro",
abstract = "The aim of the present study was to analyse the sustain release of Chlorhexidine with Chitosan and to investigate the antimicrobial activity of 2{\%} Chlorhexidine gel, 2{\%} Chitosan gel and their combination against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis. Sustain release of Chlorhexidine with Chitosan was determined using UV spectrophotometer. Then the inoculae of these organisms were used to make the lawn culture on sabouraud's dextrose agar and blood agar plates. Wells were prepared in these lawn cultures and filled with 2{\%} Chlorhexidine gel, 2{\%} Chitosan gel and their combination. The agar plates were incubated overnight at 37°C and the zone of inhibition was examined after 48 h. Release of Chlorhexidine with Chitosan was better than plain Chlorhexidine release. Combination of Chlorhexidine and Chitosan showed maximum inhibitory zone for C. albicans (25.2 mm) and E. faecalis (26.0 mm). Plain Chlorhexidine gel showed intermediate inhibitory zone for C. albicans (20.6 mm) and E. faecalis (21.4 mm) and plain Chitosan gel showed minimum inhibitory zone for C. albicans (16.6 mm) and E. faecalis (11.0 mm). Carbopol which served as control did not have any antimicrobial effect. The present study suggests that 2{\%} Chlorhexidine gel in combination with 2{\%} Chitosan gel has the highest antimicrobial effect against C. albicans and E. faecalis compared with 2{\%} Chlorhexidine gel or 2{\%} Chitosan gel alone. {\circledC} 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation {\circledC} 2008 Australian Society of Endodontology.",
author = "N.V. Ballal and M. Kundabala and K.S. Bhat and S. Acharya and M. Ballal and R. Kumar and P.Y. Prakash",
note = "Cited By :17 Export Date: 10 November 2017 Correspondence Address: Ballal, N.V.; Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal-576 104, Karnataka, India; email: drballal@yahoo.com Chemicals/CAS: chitosan, 9012-76-4; chlorhexidine, 3697-42-5, 55-56-1; Anti-Infective Agents, Local; Biocompatible Materials; Chitosan, 9012-76-4; Chlorhexidine, 55-56-1; Delayed-Action Preparations; Drug Combinations; Gels References: Nair, P.N.R., Sjogren, U., Krey, G., Kahnberg, K.E., Sundqvist, G., Intraradicular bacteria and fungi in root-filled, asymptomatic human teeth with therapy resistant periapical lesions: a long term light and electron microscopic follow up study (1990) J Endod, 16, pp. 580-588; Sen, B.H., Piskin, B., Demirci, T., Observation of bacteria and fungi in infected root canals and dentinal tubules by SEM (1995) Endod Dent Traumatol, 11, pp. 6-9; Baumgartner, J.C., Watts, C.M., Xia, T., Occurance of Candida albicans in infections of endodontic origin (2000) J Endod, 26, pp. 695-698; Waltimo, T.M.T., Siren, E.K., Torkko, H.L.K., Olsen, I., Happasalo, M.P.P., Fungi in therapy-resistant apical periodontitis (1997) Int Endod J, 30, pp. 96-101; Hagihara, Y., Kaminishi, H., Cho, T., Tanaka, M., Kaita, H., Degradation of human dentin collagen by an enzyme produced by the yeasts Candida albicans (1988) Arch Oral Biol, 33, pp. 617-619; Sundqvist, G., Figdor, D., Persson, S., Microbiologic analysis of teeth with failed endodontic treatment and the outcome of conservative retreatment (1998) Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path Oral Radiol Endod, 85, pp. 86-93; Fabricius, L., Dahlen, G., Holm, S.E., Moller, A.J., Inuence of combinations of oral bacteria on periapical tissues of monkeys (1982) Scand J Dent Res, 90, pp. 200-206; Love, R.M., Enterococcus faecalis: a mechanism for its role in endodontic failure (2001) Int Endod J, 34, pp. 399-405; Siqueria J.F., Jr., Rocas, I.N., Lopes, H.P., Elias, C.N., de Uzeda, M., Fungal infection of the radicular dentin (2002) J Endod, 28, pp. 770-773; Siren, E.K., Haapasalo, M.P., Ranta, K., Salmi, P., Kerosuo, E.N., Microbiological findings and clinical treatment procedures in endodontic cases selected for microbiological investigation (1997) Int Endod J, 30, pp. 91-95; Haapasalo, H.K., Siren, E.K., Waltimo, T.M., Orstavik, D., Haapasalo, M.P., Inactivation of local root canal medicaments by dentin: an in vitro study (2003) Int Endod J, 33, pp. 126-131; White, R.R., Hays, G.L., Janer, L.R., Residual antimicrobial activity after canal irrigation with chlorhexidine (1997) J Endod, 23, pp. 29-31; Heling, I., Sommer, M., Steinberg, D., Friedman, M., Sela, M.N., Microbiological evaluation of the efficacy of chlorhexidine in a sustained release device for dentin sterilization (1992) Int Endod J, 25, pp. 15-19; Gomes, B.P.F.A., Souza, S.F.C., Ferraz, C.C.R., Effectiveness of 2{\%} chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis in bovine root dentin in vitro (2003) Int Endod J, 36, pp. 267-275; Jeansonne, M.J., White, R.R., A comparison of 2{\%} chlorhexidine gluconate and 5.25{\%} sodium hypochlorite as antimicrobial endodontic irrigants (1994) J Endod, 20, pp. 276-278; Ohara, P.K., Torabinajad, M., Ketting, J.D., Antibacterial effects of various endodontic irrigants on selected anaerobic bacteria (1993) Endod Dent Traumatol, 9, p. 5; Ferraz, C.C.R., Gomes, B.P.F.A., Zaia, A.A., Teixeira, F.B., de Souza Filho, F.J., In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial action and the mechanical ability of chlorhexidine gel as an endodontic irrigant (2001) J Endod, 27, pp. 452-455; Heling, I., Steinberg, D., Kenig, S., Gavrilovich, I., Sela, M.N., Friedman, M., Efficacy of a sustained-release device containing chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide in preventing secondary infection of dentinal tubules (1992) Int Endod J, 25, pp. 20-24; Skaugrud, O., Chitosan-new biopolymer for cosmetics and drugs (1991) Drug Cosmet Ind, 148, pp. 24-29; Miyazaki, S., Yamaguchi, H., Yokouchi, C., Takada, M., Hou, W., Sustained-release and intragastric-oating granules of indomethacin using chitosan in rabbits (1988) Chem Pharm Bull, 36, pp. 4033-4038; Nigalaye, A.G., Adusumilli, P., Bolton, S., Investigation of prolonged drug release from matrix formulations of Chitosan (1990) Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 16, pp. 449-467; LueBen, H.L., Co, R., Kotze, A.F., Lehr, C.M., de Boer, A., Mucoadhesive polymers in peroral peptide drug delivery. IV polycarbophil and chitosan are potent enhancers of peptide transport across intestinal mucosae in vitro (1997) J Control Release, 45, pp. 15-23; Schipper, N.G.M., Varum, K.M., Artursson, P., Chitosan as absorption enhancers for poorly absorbable drugs. 1: inuence of molecular weight and degree of acetylation on drug transport across human epithelial cells (CaCo-2) cells (1996) Pharm Res, 13, pp. 1686-1692; Singla, A.K., Chawla, M., Chitosan: some pharmaceutical and biological aspects-an update (2001) J Pharm Pharmacol, 53, pp. 1047-1067; Park, J.S., Choi, S.H., Moon, I.S., Cho, K.S., Chai, J.K., Kim, C.K., Eight week histological analysis on the effect of chitosan on surgically created one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs (2003) J Clin Periodontol, 30, pp. 443-453; Senel, S., Ikinci, G., Kas, S., Youse Rad, A., Sargon, M.F., Hincal, A.A., Chitosan films and hydrogels of chlorhexidine gluconate for oral mucosal delivery (2000) Int J Pharm, 193, pp. 197-203; Greenstein, G., Berman, C., Jaffin, R., Chlorhexidine. An adjunct to periodontal therapy (1986) J Periodontol, 57, pp. 370-376; Gomes, B.P.F.A., Ferraz, C.C.R., Vianna, M.E., Berber, V.B., Teixeira, F.R., Souza-Filho, F.J., In vitro antimicrobial activity of several concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate in the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis (2001) Int Endod J, 34, pp. 424-428; Staroniewiez, Z., Ramisz, A., Wojtosz-Pajak, A., Brzeski, M.M., (1994) Studies on antibacterial and antifungal activity of chitosan, pp. 374-377. , Karnicki ZS, Brzeski MM, Bykonski PJ, Wojtasz-Pajak A, eds. Chitin world. Wissenschoft, GmbH; Germany: Wirtschaftverlog NW-Verlag furneve",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1111/j.1747-4477.2008.00126.x",
language = "English",
volume = "35",
pages = "29--33",
journal = "Australian Endodontic Journal",
issn = "1329-1947",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Susceptibility of Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis to Chitosan, Chlorhexidine gluconate and their combination in vitro

AU - Ballal, N.V.

AU - Kundabala, M.

AU - Bhat, K.S.

AU - Acharya, S.

AU - Ballal, M.

AU - Kumar, R.

AU - Prakash, P.Y.

N1 - Cited By :17 Export Date: 10 November 2017 Correspondence Address: Ballal, N.V.; Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal-576 104, Karnataka, India; email: drballal@yahoo.com Chemicals/CAS: chitosan, 9012-76-4; chlorhexidine, 3697-42-5, 55-56-1; Anti-Infective Agents, Local; Biocompatible Materials; Chitosan, 9012-76-4; Chlorhexidine, 55-56-1; Delayed-Action Preparations; Drug Combinations; Gels References: Nair, P.N.R., Sjogren, U., Krey, G., Kahnberg, K.E., Sundqvist, G., Intraradicular bacteria and fungi in root-filled, asymptomatic human teeth with therapy resistant periapical lesions: a long term light and electron microscopic follow up study (1990) J Endod, 16, pp. 580-588; Sen, B.H., Piskin, B., Demirci, T., Observation of bacteria and fungi in infected root canals and dentinal tubules by SEM (1995) Endod Dent Traumatol, 11, pp. 6-9; Baumgartner, J.C., Watts, C.M., Xia, T., Occurance of Candida albicans in infections of endodontic origin (2000) J Endod, 26, pp. 695-698; Waltimo, T.M.T., Siren, E.K., Torkko, H.L.K., Olsen, I., Happasalo, M.P.P., Fungi in therapy-resistant apical periodontitis (1997) Int Endod J, 30, pp. 96-101; Hagihara, Y., Kaminishi, H., Cho, T., Tanaka, M., Kaita, H., Degradation of human dentin collagen by an enzyme produced by the yeasts Candida albicans (1988) Arch Oral Biol, 33, pp. 617-619; Sundqvist, G., Figdor, D., Persson, S., Microbiologic analysis of teeth with failed endodontic treatment and the outcome of conservative retreatment (1998) Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path Oral Radiol Endod, 85, pp. 86-93; Fabricius, L., Dahlen, G., Holm, S.E., Moller, A.J., Inuence of combinations of oral bacteria on periapical tissues of monkeys (1982) Scand J Dent Res, 90, pp. 200-206; Love, R.M., Enterococcus faecalis: a mechanism for its role in endodontic failure (2001) Int Endod J, 34, pp. 399-405; Siqueria J.F., Jr., Rocas, I.N., Lopes, H.P., Elias, C.N., de Uzeda, M., Fungal infection of the radicular dentin (2002) J Endod, 28, pp. 770-773; Siren, E.K., Haapasalo, M.P., Ranta, K., Salmi, P., Kerosuo, E.N., Microbiological findings and clinical treatment procedures in endodontic cases selected for microbiological investigation (1997) Int Endod J, 30, pp. 91-95; Haapasalo, H.K., Siren, E.K., Waltimo, T.M., Orstavik, D., Haapasalo, M.P., Inactivation of local root canal medicaments by dentin: an in vitro study (2003) Int Endod J, 33, pp. 126-131; White, R.R., Hays, G.L., Janer, L.R., Residual antimicrobial activity after canal irrigation with chlorhexidine (1997) J Endod, 23, pp. 29-31; Heling, I., Sommer, M., Steinberg, D., Friedman, M., Sela, M.N., Microbiological evaluation of the efficacy of chlorhexidine in a sustained release device for dentin sterilization (1992) Int Endod J, 25, pp. 15-19; Gomes, B.P.F.A., Souza, S.F.C., Ferraz, C.C.R., Effectiveness of 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis in bovine root dentin in vitro (2003) Int Endod J, 36, pp. 267-275; Jeansonne, M.J., White, R.R., A comparison of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as antimicrobial endodontic irrigants (1994) J Endod, 20, pp. 276-278; Ohara, P.K., Torabinajad, M., Ketting, J.D., Antibacterial effects of various endodontic irrigants on selected anaerobic bacteria (1993) Endod Dent Traumatol, 9, p. 5; Ferraz, C.C.R., Gomes, B.P.F.A., Zaia, A.A., Teixeira, F.B., de Souza Filho, F.J., In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial action and the mechanical ability of chlorhexidine gel as an endodontic irrigant (2001) J Endod, 27, pp. 452-455; Heling, I., Steinberg, D., Kenig, S., Gavrilovich, I., Sela, M.N., Friedman, M., Efficacy of a sustained-release device containing chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide in preventing secondary infection of dentinal tubules (1992) Int Endod J, 25, pp. 20-24; Skaugrud, O., Chitosan-new biopolymer for cosmetics and drugs (1991) Drug Cosmet Ind, 148, pp. 24-29; Miyazaki, S., Yamaguchi, H., Yokouchi, C., Takada, M., Hou, W., Sustained-release and intragastric-oating granules of indomethacin using chitosan in rabbits (1988) Chem Pharm Bull, 36, pp. 4033-4038; Nigalaye, A.G., Adusumilli, P., Bolton, S., Investigation of prolonged drug release from matrix formulations of Chitosan (1990) Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 16, pp. 449-467; LueBen, H.L., Co, R., Kotze, A.F., Lehr, C.M., de Boer, A., Mucoadhesive polymers in peroral peptide drug delivery. IV polycarbophil and chitosan are potent enhancers of peptide transport across intestinal mucosae in vitro (1997) J Control Release, 45, pp. 15-23; Schipper, N.G.M., Varum, K.M., Artursson, P., Chitosan as absorption enhancers for poorly absorbable drugs. 1: inuence of molecular weight and degree of acetylation on drug transport across human epithelial cells (CaCo-2) cells (1996) Pharm Res, 13, pp. 1686-1692; Singla, A.K., Chawla, M., Chitosan: some pharmaceutical and biological aspects-an update (2001) J Pharm Pharmacol, 53, pp. 1047-1067; Park, J.S., Choi, S.H., Moon, I.S., Cho, K.S., Chai, J.K., Kim, C.K., Eight week histological analysis on the effect of chitosan on surgically created one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs (2003) J Clin Periodontol, 30, pp. 443-453; Senel, S., Ikinci, G., Kas, S., Youse Rad, A., Sargon, M.F., Hincal, A.A., Chitosan films and hydrogels of chlorhexidine gluconate for oral mucosal delivery (2000) Int J Pharm, 193, pp. 197-203; Greenstein, G., Berman, C., Jaffin, R., Chlorhexidine. An adjunct to periodontal therapy (1986) J Periodontol, 57, pp. 370-376; Gomes, B.P.F.A., Ferraz, C.C.R., Vianna, M.E., Berber, V.B., Teixeira, F.R., Souza-Filho, F.J., In vitro antimicrobial activity of several concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate in the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis (2001) Int Endod J, 34, pp. 424-428; Staroniewiez, Z., Ramisz, A., Wojtosz-Pajak, A., Brzeski, M.M., (1994) Studies on antibacterial and antifungal activity of chitosan, pp. 374-377. , Karnicki ZS, Brzeski MM, Bykonski PJ, Wojtasz-Pajak A, eds. Chitin world. Wissenschoft, GmbH; Germany: Wirtschaftverlog NW-Verlag furneve

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - The aim of the present study was to analyse the sustain release of Chlorhexidine with Chitosan and to investigate the antimicrobial activity of 2% Chlorhexidine gel, 2% Chitosan gel and their combination against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis. Sustain release of Chlorhexidine with Chitosan was determined using UV spectrophotometer. Then the inoculae of these organisms were used to make the lawn culture on sabouraud's dextrose agar and blood agar plates. Wells were prepared in these lawn cultures and filled with 2% Chlorhexidine gel, 2% Chitosan gel and their combination. The agar plates were incubated overnight at 37°C and the zone of inhibition was examined after 48 h. Release of Chlorhexidine with Chitosan was better than plain Chlorhexidine release. Combination of Chlorhexidine and Chitosan showed maximum inhibitory zone for C. albicans (25.2 mm) and E. faecalis (26.0 mm). Plain Chlorhexidine gel showed intermediate inhibitory zone for C. albicans (20.6 mm) and E. faecalis (21.4 mm) and plain Chitosan gel showed minimum inhibitory zone for C. albicans (16.6 mm) and E. faecalis (11.0 mm). Carbopol which served as control did not have any antimicrobial effect. The present study suggests that 2% Chlorhexidine gel in combination with 2% Chitosan gel has the highest antimicrobial effect against C. albicans and E. faecalis compared with 2% Chlorhexidine gel or 2% Chitosan gel alone. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Australian Society of Endodontology.

AB - The aim of the present study was to analyse the sustain release of Chlorhexidine with Chitosan and to investigate the antimicrobial activity of 2% Chlorhexidine gel, 2% Chitosan gel and their combination against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis. Sustain release of Chlorhexidine with Chitosan was determined using UV spectrophotometer. Then the inoculae of these organisms were used to make the lawn culture on sabouraud's dextrose agar and blood agar plates. Wells were prepared in these lawn cultures and filled with 2% Chlorhexidine gel, 2% Chitosan gel and their combination. The agar plates were incubated overnight at 37°C and the zone of inhibition was examined after 48 h. Release of Chlorhexidine with Chitosan was better than plain Chlorhexidine release. Combination of Chlorhexidine and Chitosan showed maximum inhibitory zone for C. albicans (25.2 mm) and E. faecalis (26.0 mm). Plain Chlorhexidine gel showed intermediate inhibitory zone for C. albicans (20.6 mm) and E. faecalis (21.4 mm) and plain Chitosan gel showed minimum inhibitory zone for C. albicans (16.6 mm) and E. faecalis (11.0 mm). Carbopol which served as control did not have any antimicrobial effect. The present study suggests that 2% Chlorhexidine gel in combination with 2% Chitosan gel has the highest antimicrobial effect against C. albicans and E. faecalis compared with 2% Chlorhexidine gel or 2% Chitosan gel alone. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Australian Society of Endodontology.

U2 - 10.1111/j.1747-4477.2008.00126.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1747-4477.2008.00126.x

M3 - Article

VL - 35

SP - 29

EP - 33

JO - Australian Endodontic Journal

JF - Australian Endodontic Journal

SN - 1329-1947

IS - 1

ER -