Introduction: Incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exert pleiotropic effects on endocrine pancreas and nervous system. Expression of GIP and GIP receptor (GIPR) in neurons, their roles in neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission, and neuromodulation uniquely position GIPR for therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative disorders. GIP analogs acting as GIPR agonists attenuate neurobehavioral and neuropathological sequelae of neurodegenerative disorders in preclinical models, e.g. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and cerebrovascular disorders. Modulation of GIPR signaling offers an unprecedented approach for disease modification by arresting neuronal viability decline, enabling neuronal regeneration, and reducing neuroinflammation. Growth-promoting effects of GIP signaling and broad-based neuroprotection highlight the therapeutic potential of GIPR agonists. Areas covered: This review focuses on the role of GIPR-mediated signaling in the central nervous system in neurophysiological and neuropathological conditions. In context of neurodegeneration, the article summarizes potential of targeting GIPR signaling for neurodegenerative conditions such as AD, PD, traumatic brain injury, and cerebrovascular disorders. Expert opinion: GIPR represents a validated therapeutic target for neurodegenerative disorders. GIPR agonists impart symptomatic improvements, slowed neurodegeneration, and enhanced neuronal regenerative capacity in preclinical models. Modulation of GIPR signaling is potentially a viable therapeutic approach for disease modification in neurodegenerative disorders.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Drug Discovery
- Clinical Biochemistry