Aim and Objectives: In dentistry, base metal casting alloys are extensively used for the fabrication of inlays, onlays, crowns, bridges, partial dentures, etc. During the casting of these alloys, excess amount of material used than needed will be collected as sprue buttons at the end, which is either added to the fresh alloy during casting and reused or disposed of. Materials and Methods: The aim of the present in vitro experimental study was to investigate the effect of the complete recasting of four commercially available cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) and nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) base metal casting alloys on their cytotoxicity. During the study, four groups of alloys were subjected to complete recasting up to twenty times without the addition of new alloy. The cytotoxicity assessment of the selected alloys after recasting (Co-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys) was carried out using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results: The results indicated that Co-Cr alloys exhibit superior cell viability compared to Ni-Cr alloys, and cytotoxic potential of the alloys increased with repeated casting and led to increased cell death. The recasting of alloys in the present study did not show high cytotoxicity even after the 20threcasting. Conclusion: From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that the alloys generated as a waste in the dental laboratory can be safely reused up to five times or at least once before they can be disposed, which reduces the cost of the treatment and also helps in conserving the natural resources.
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