The global distribution of lymphatic filariasis, 2000–18: a geospatial analysis

Aniruddha Deshpande, Molly K. Miller-Petrie, Paulina A. Lindstedt, Mathew M. Baumann, Kimberly B. Johnson, Brigette F. Blacker, Hedayat Abbastabar, Foad Abd-Allah, Ahmed Abdelalim, Ibrahim Abdollahpour, Kedir Hussein Abegaz, Ayenew Negesse Abejie, Lucas Guimarães Abreu, Michael R.M. Abrigo, Ahmed Abualhasan, Manfred Mario Kokou Accrombessi, Abdu A. Adamu, Oladimeji M. Adebayo, Isaac Akinkunmi Adedeji, Rufus Adesoji AdedoyinVictor Adekanmbi, Olatunji O. Adetokunboh, Tara Ballav Adhikari, Mohsen Afarideh, Marcela Agudelo-Botero, Mehdi Ahmadi, Keivan Ahmadi, Muktar Beshir Ahmed, Anwar E. Ahmed, Temesgen Yihunie Akalu, Ali S. Akanda, Fares Alahdab, Ziyad Al-Aly, Samiah Alam, Noore Alam, Genet Melak Alamene, Turki M. Alanzi, James Albright, Ammar Albujeer, Jacqueline Elizabeth Alcalde-Rabanal, Animut Alebel, Zewdie Aderaw Alemu, Muhammad Ali, Mehran Alijanzadeh, Vahid Alipour, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Ali Almasi, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi, Khalid A. Altirkawi, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Nelson J. Alvis-Zakzuk, Saeed Amini, Arianna Maever L. Amit, Gianna Gayle Herrera Amul, Catalina Liliana Andrei, Mina Anjomshoa, Ansariadi Ansariadi, Carl Abelardo T. Antonio, Benny Antony, Ernoiz Antriyandarti, Jalal Arabloo, Hany Mohamed Amin Aref, Olatunde Aremu, Bahram Armoon, Amit Arora, Krishna K. Aryal, Afsaneh Arzani, Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi, Daniel Asmelash, Hagos Tasew Atalay, Seyyede Masoume Athari, Seyyed Shamsadin Athari, Sachin R. Atre, Marcel Ausloos, Shally Awasthi, Nefsu Awoke, Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla, Getinet Ayano, Martin Amogre Ayanore, Yared Asmare Aynalem, Samad Azari, Andrew S. Azman, Ebrahim Babaee, Alaa Badawi, Mojtaba Bagherzadeh, Shankar M. Bakkannavar, Senthilkumar Balakrishnan, Maciej Banach, Joseph Adel Mattar Banoub, Aleksandra Barac, Miguel A. Barboza, Till Winfried Bärnighausen, Sanjay Basu, Vo Dinh Bay, Mohsen Bayati, Neeraj Bedi, Mahya Beheshti, Meysam Behzadifar, Masoud Behzadifar, Diana Fernanda Bejarano Ramirez, Michelle L. Bell, Derrick A. Bennett, Habib Benzian, Dessalegn Ajema Berbada, Robert S. Bernstein, Anusha Ganapati Bhat, Krittika Bhattacharyya, Soumyadeep Bhaumik, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Ali Bijani, Boris Bikbov, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed, Raaj Kishore Biswas, Somayeh Bohlouli, Soufiane Boufous, Oliver J. Brady, Andrey Nikolaevich Briko, Nikolay Ivanovich Briko, Gabrielle B. Britton, Alexandria Brown, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Zahid A. Butt, Luis Alberto Cámera, Ismael R. Campos-Nonato, Julio Cesar Campuzano Rincon, Jorge Cano, Josip Car, Rosario Cárdenas, Felix Carvalho, Carlos A. Castañeda-Orjuela, Franz Castro, Ester Cerin, Binaya Chalise, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Ken Lee Chin, Devasahayam J. Christopher, Dinh Toi Chu, Natalie Maria Cormier, Vera Marisa Costa, Elizabeth A. Cromwell, Abel Fekadu Fekadu Dadi, Tukur Dahiru, Saad M.A. Dahlawi, Rakhi Dandona, Lalit Dandona, Anh Kim Dang, Farah Daoud, Aso Mohammad Darwesh, Amira Hamed Darwish, Ahmad Daryani, Jai K. Das, Rajat Das Gupta, Aditya Prasad Dash, Claudio Alberto Dávila-Cervantes, Nicole Davis Weaver, Fernando Pio De la Hoz, Jan Walter De Neve, Dereje Bayissa Demissie, Gebre Teklemariam Demoz, Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez, Kebede Deribe, Assefa Desalew, Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne, Preeti Dhillon, Meghnath Dhimal, Govinda Prasad Dhungana, Daniel Diaz, Isaac Oluwafemi Dipeolu, Hoa Thi Do, Christiane Dolecek, Kerrie E. Doyle, Eleonora Dubljanin, Andre Rodrigues Duraes, Hisham Atan Edinur, Andem Effiong, Aziz Eftekhari, Nevine El Nahas, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Maha El Tantawi, Hala Rashad Elhabashy, Shaimaa I. El-Jaafary, Ziad El-Khatib, Hajer Elkout, Aisha Elsharkawy, Shymaa Enany, Daniel Adane Endalew, Babak Eshrati, Sharareh Eskandarieh, Arash Etemadi, Oluchi Ezekannagha, Emerito Jose A. Faraon, Mohammad Fareed, Andre Faro, Farshad Farzadfar, Alebachew Fasil Fasil, Mehdi Fazlzadeh, Valery L. Feigin, Wubalem Fekadu, Netsanet Fentahun, Seyed Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Eduarda Fernandes, Irina Filip, Florian Fischer, Carsten Flohr, Nataliya A. Foigt, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Masoud Foroutan, Richard Charles Franklin, Joseph Jon Frostad, Takeshi Fukumoto, Mohamed M. Gad, Gregory M. Garcia, Augustine Mwangi Gatotoh, Reta Tsegaye Gayesa, Ketema Bizuwork Gebremedhin, Yilma Chisha Dea Geramo, Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Kebede Embaye Gezae, Ahmad Ghashghaee, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Tiffany K. Gill, Paramjit Singh Gill, Themba G. Ginindza, Alem Girmay, Zemichael Gizaw, Amador Goodridge, Sameer Vali Gopalani, Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart, Alessandra C. Goulart, Ayman Grada, Manfred S. Green, Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen Gubari, Harish Chander Gugnani, Davide Guido, Rafael Alves Guimarães, Yuming Guo, Rajeev Gupta, Rahul Gupta, Giang Hai Ha, Juanita A. Haagsma, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Dessalegn H. Haile, Michael Tamene Haile, Brian J. Hall, Samer Hamidi, Demelash Woldeyohannes Handiso, Hamidreza Haririan, Ninuk Hariyani, Ahmed I. Hasaballah, Md Mehedi Hasan, Amir Hasanzadeh, Hamid Yimam Hassen, Desta Haftu Hayelom, Mohamed I. Hegazy, Behzad Heibati, Behnam Heidari, Delia Hendrie, Andualem Henok, Claudiu Herteliu, Fatemeh Heydarpour, Hagos Degefa de Hidru, Thomas R. Hird, Chi Linh Hoang, Gillian I. Hollerich, Praveen Hoogar, Naznin Hossain, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Mowafa Househ, Guoqing Hu, Ayesha Humayun, Syed Ather Hussain, Mamusha Aman A. Hussen, Segun Emmanuel Ibitoye, Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi, Milena D. Ilic, Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab, Usman Iqbal, Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Rebecca Q. Ivers, Chinwe Juliana Iwu, Nader Jahanmehr, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Amir Jalali, Achala Upendra Jayatilleke, Ensiyeh Jenabi, Ravi Prakash Jha, Vivekanand Jha, John S. Ji, Jost B. Jonas, Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak, Ali Kabir, Zubair Kabir, Tanuj Kanchan, André Karch, Surendra Karki, Amir Kasaeian, Gebremicheal Gebreslassie Kasahun, Habtamu Kebebe Kasaye, Gebrehiwot G. Kassa, Getachew Mullu Kassa, Gbenga A. Kayode, Mihiretu M. Kebede, Peter Njenga Keiyoro, Daniel Bekele Ketema, Yousef Saleh Khader, Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie, Nauman Khalid, Rovshan Khalilov, Ejaz Ahmad Khan, Junaid Khan, Md Nuruzzaman Khan, Khaled Khatab, Mona M. Khater, Amir M. Khater, Maryam Khayamzadeh, Mohammad Khazaei, Mohammad Hossein Khosravi, Jagdish Khubchandani, Ali Kiadaliri, Yun Jin Kim, Ruth W. Kimokoti, Sezer Kisa, Adnan Kisa, Sonali Kochhar, Tufa Kolola, Hamidreza Komaki, Soewarta Kosen, Parvaiz A. Koul, Ai Koyanagi, Kewal Krishan, Barthelemy Kuate Defo, Nuworza Kugbey, Pushpendra Kumar, G. Anil Kumar, Manasi Kumar, Dian Kusuma, Carlo La Vecchia, Ben Lacey, Aparna Lal, Dharmesh Kumar Lal, Hilton Lam, Faris Hasan Lami, Van Charles Lansingh, Savita Lasrado, Georgy Lebedev, Paul H. Lee, Kate E. LeGrand, Mostafa Leili, Tsegaye Lolaso Lenjebo, Cheru Tesema Leshargie, Aubrey J. Levine, Sonia Lewycka, Shanshan Li, Shai Linn, Shiwei Liu, Jaifred Christian F. Lopez, Platon D. Lopukhov, Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek, D. R. Mahadeshwara Prasad, Phetole Walter Mahasha, Narayan B. Mahotra, Azeem Majeed, Reza Malekzadeh, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Abdullah A. Mamun, Navid Manafi, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Chabila Christopher Mapoma, Gabriel Martinez, Santi Martini, Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo, Manu Raj Mathur, Benjamin K. Mayala, Mohsen Mazidi, Colm McAlinden, Birhanu Geta Meharie, Man Mohan Mehndiratta, Entezar Mehrabi Nasab, Kala M. Mehta, Teferi Mekonnen, Tefera Chane Mekonnen, Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles, Hagazi Gebre Meles, Peter T.N. Memiah, Ziad A. Memish, Walter Mendoza, Ritesh G. Menezes, Seid Tiku Mereta, Tuomo J. Meretoja, Tomislav Mestrovic, Workua Mekonnen Metekiya, Bartosz Miazgowski, Ted R. Miller, G. K. Mini, Erkin M. Mirrakhimov, Babak Moazen, Bahram Mohajer, Yousef Mohammad, Dara K. Mohammad, Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji, Roghayeh Mohammadibakhsh, Shafiu Mohammed, Jemal Abdu Mohammed, Hassen Mohammed, Farnam Mohebi, Ali H. Mokdad, Yoshan Moodley, Masoud Moradi, Ghobad Moradi, Mohammad Moradi-Joo, Paula Moraga, Linda Morales, Abbas Mosapour, Jonathan F. Mosser, Simin Mouodi, Seyyed Meysam Mousavi, Miliva Mozaffor, Sandra B. Munro, Moses K. Muriithi, Christopher J.L. Murray, Kamarul Imran Musa, Ghulam Mustafa, Saravanan Muthupandian, Mehdi Naderi, Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan, Mohsen Naghavi, Gurudatta Naik, Vinay Nangia, Bruno Ramos Nascimento, Javad Nazari, Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe, Ionut Negoi, Henok Biresaw Netsere, Josephine W. Ngunjiri, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Quynh Anh P. Nguyen, Solomon Gedlu Nigatu, Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum, Chukwudi A. Nnaji, Marzieh Nojomi, Ole F. Norheim, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Bogdan Oancea, Felix Akpojene Ogbo, In Hwan Oh, Andrew T. Olagunju, Jacob Olusegun Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya, Obinna E. Onwujekwe, Doris V. Ortega-Altamirano, Osayomwanbo Osarenotor, Frank B. Osei, Mayowa O. Owolabi, Mahesh P A, Jagadish Rao Padubidri, Smita Pakhale, Adrian Pana, Eun Kee Park, Sangram Kishor Patel, Ashish Pathak, Ajay Patle, Kebreab Paulos, Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito, Norberto Perico, Aslam Pervaiz, Julia Moreira Pescarini, Konrad Pesudovs, Hai Quang Pham, David M. Pigott, Thomas Pilgrim, Meghdad Pirsaheb, Mario Poljak, Ian Pollock, Maarten J. Postma, Farshad Pourmalek, Akram Pourshams, Sergio I. Prada, Liliana Preotescu, Hedley Quintana, Navid Rabiee, Mohammad Rabiee, Amir Radfar, Alireza Rafiei, Fakher Rahim, Siavash Rahimi, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Muhammad Aziz Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman, Fatemeh Rajati, Chhabi Lal Ranabhat, Puja C. Rao, Davide Rasella, Goura Kishor Rath, Salman Rawaf, Lal Rawal, Wasiq Faraz Rawasia, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Vishnu Renjith, Andre M.N. Renzaho, Serge Resnikoff, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Ana Isabel Ribeiro, Jennifer Rickard, Leonardo Roever, Luca Ronfani, Enrico Rubagotti, Salvatore Rubino, Anas M. Saad, Siamak Sabour, Ehsan Sadeghi, Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam, Yahya Safari, Rajesh Sagar, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, S. Mohammad Sajadi, Mohammad Reza Salahshoor, Nasir Salam, Ahsan Saleem, Hosni Salem, Marwa Rashad Salem, Yahya Salimi, Hamideh Salimzadeh, Abdallah M. Samy, Juan Sanabria, Itamar S. Santos, Milena M. Santric-Milicevic, Bruno Piassi Sao Jose, Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Benn Sartorius, Brijesh Sathian, Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Maheswar Satpathy, Monika Sawhney, Mehdi Sayyah, Alyssa N. Sbarra, Lauren E. Schaeffer, David C. Schwebel, Anbissa Muleta Senbeta, Subramanian Senthilkumaran, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Edson Serván-Mori, Azadeh Shafieesabet, Amira A. Shaheen, Izza Shahid, Masood Ali Shaikh, Ali S. 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Sykes, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Takahiro Tabuchi, Degena Bahrey Tadesse, Ingan Ukur Tarigan, Bineyam Taye, Yonatal Mesfin Tefera, Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi, Shishay Wahdey Tekelemedhin, Merhawi Gebremedhin Tekle, Mohamad Hani Temsah, Berhe Etsay Tesfay, Fisaha Haile Tesfay, Zemenu Tadesse Tessema, Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan, Akhil Soman ThekkePurakkal, Nihal Thomas, Robert L. Thompson, Alan J. Thomson, Roman Topor-Madry, Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone, Eugenio Traini, Bach Xuan Tran, Khanh Bao Tran, Irfan Ullah, Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan, Muhammad Shariq Usman, Olalekan A. Uthman, Benjamin S.Chudi Uzochukwu, Pascual R. Valdez, Santosh Varughese, Yousef Veisani, Francesco S. Violante, Sebastian Vollmer, Feleke Gebremeskel W/hawariat, Yasir Waheed, Mitchell Taylor Wallin, Yuan Pang Wang, Yafeng Wang, Kinley Wangdi, Daniel J. Weiss, Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel, Adhena Ayaliew Werkneh, Ronny Westerman, Taweewat Wiangkham, Kirsten E. Wiens, Tissa Wijeratne, Charles Shey Wiysonge, Haileab Fekadu Wolde, Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash, Tewodros Eshete Wonde, Getasew Taddesse Worku, Ali Yadollahpour, Seyed Hossein Yahyazadeh Jabbari, Tomohide Yamada, Mehdi Yaseri, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Alex Yeshaneh, Mekdes Tigistu Yilma, Paul Yip, Engida Yisma, Naohiro Yonemoto, Mustafa Z. Younis, Hebat Allah Salah A. Yousof, Chuanhua Yu, Hasan Yusefzadeh, Siddhesh Zadey, Telma Zahirian Moghadam, Zoubida Zaidi, Sojib Bin Zaman, Mohammad Zamani, Hamed Zandian, Heather J. Zar, Taddese Alemu Zerfu, Yunquan Zhang, Arash Ziapour, Sanjay Zodpey, Yves Miel H. Zuniga, Simon I. Hay, Robert C. Reiner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Lymphatic filariasis is a neglected tropical disease that can cause permanent disability through disruption of the lymphatic system. This disease is caused by parasitic filarial worms that are transmitted by mosquitos. Mass drug administration (MDA) of antihelmintics is recommended by WHO to eliminate lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem. This study aims to produce the first geospatial estimates of the global prevalence of lymphatic filariasis infection over time, to quantify progress towards elimination, and to identify geographical variation in distribution of infection. Methods: A global dataset of georeferenced surveyed locations was used to model annual 2000–18 lymphatic filariasis prevalence for 73 current or previously endemic countries. We applied Bayesian model-based geostatistics and time series methods to generate spatially continuous estimates of global all-age 2000–18 prevalence of lymphatic filariasis infection mapped at a resolution of 5 km2 and aggregated to estimate total number of individuals infected. Findings: We used 14 927 datapoints to fit the geospatial models. An estimated 199 million total individuals (95% uncertainty interval 174–234 million) worldwide were infected with lymphatic filariasis in 2000, with totals for WHO regions ranging from 3·1 million (1·6–5·7 million) in the region of the Americas to 107 million (91–134 million) in the South-East Asia region. By 2018, an estimated 51 million individuals (43–63 million) were infected. Broad declines in prevalence are observed globally, but focal areas in Africa and southeast Asia remain less likely to have attained infection prevalence thresholds proposed to achieve local elimination. Interpretation: Although the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis infection has declined since 2000, MDA is still necessary across large populations in Africa and Asia. Our mapped estimates can be used to identify areas where the probability of meeting infection thresholds is low, and when coupled with large uncertainty in the predictions, indicate additional data collection or intervention might be warranted before MDA programmes cease. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e1186-e1194
JournalThe Lancet Global Health
Volume8
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 09-2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)

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    Deshpande, A., Miller-Petrie, M. K., Lindstedt, P. A., Baumann, M. M., Johnson, K. B., Blacker, B. F., Abbastabar, H., Abd-Allah, F., Abdelalim, A., Abdollahpour, I., Abegaz, K. H., Abejie, A. N., Abreu, L. G., Abrigo, M. R. M., Abualhasan, A., Accrombessi, M. M. K., Adamu, A. A., Adebayo, O. M., Adedeji, I. A., ... Reiner, R. C. (2020). The global distribution of lymphatic filariasis, 2000–18: a geospatial analysis. The Lancet Global Health, 8(9), e1186-e1194. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30286-2