The Hepato Renal Syndrome (HRS) remains a diagnostic and therapeutic conundrum. Controversies persist in the definition, understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnosis, and therapy of renal dysfunction complicating End Stage Liver Disease (ESLD).While ESLD is complicated by dysfunction in multiple organs, renal disease holds particular bearing on long term outcomes. Liver transplantation is the therapy of choice for ESLD-and co existing renal dysfunction makes it more difficult and challenging. Given that a bare minimum of patients with ESLD will ultimately receive a liver transplant, especially in the developing world, renal dysfunction may ultimately portend untimely death in a many of these patients. It is also critical to recognize the fact that HRS is not the sole cause of renal failure in ESLD. Hence, early recognition and therapy may prolong life even in those who will not receive a transplant for multitude of reasons. Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) is also a challenge in this patient population, leading to issues with hemodynamics, vascular access and anticoagulation. We take a look at recent literature and advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of this particularly difficult condition, and its diagnosis and management.
|Journal||Giornale italiano di nefrologia : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di nefrologia|
|Publication status||Published - 01-05-2014|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes