Purpose: Normal tissue radiosensitivity is the major limiting factor in radiotherapy of cancer. The use of phytochemicals may reduce the adverse effects of radiation in normal tissue. The effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Aphanamixis polystachya (EAP) was investigated on the radiation-induced chromosome damage in the bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice exposed to various doses of γ-radiation. Materials and methods: The mice were divided into two groups, one group was exposed to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 Gy of γ-radiation, while another group received 7.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) of EAP 1 h before exposure to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 Gy of γ-radiation. Various asymmetrical chromosome aberrations were studied in the bone marrow cells of mice at 12, 24 or 48 h post-irradiation. To understand the mechanism of action of the free radical scavenging activity of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 or 70 μg/ml EAP, assays were carried out in vitro. Results: Irradiation of mice to different doses of gamma radiation caused a dose dependent elevation in the frequency of aberrant cells and chromosome aberrations like chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks, dicentrics, acentric fragments and total aberrations at all the post-irradiation times studied. The maximum asymmetrical aberrations were scored at 24 h post-irradiation except chromatid breaks that were highest at 12 h post-irradiation. A maximum number of polyploid and severely damaged cells (SDC) were recorded at 24 h post-irradiation in the SPS + irradiation group. Treatment of mice with 7.5 mg/ kg BW of EAP before exposure to 1-5 Gy of whole body gamma-radiation significantly reduced the frequencies of aberrant cells and chromosomal aberrations like acentric fragments, chromatid and chromosome breaks, centric rings, dicentrics and total aberrations at all post-irradiation scoring times (p < 0.01). The EAP showed a concentration dependent scavenging of hydroxyl, superoxide, 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and the 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) cation radicals in vitro. EAP treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation in bone marrow cells in a concentration dependent manner. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that EAP protects mouse bone marrow cells against radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations and this reduction in radiation-induced chromosome damage may be due to free radical scavenging and reduction in lipid peroxidation. The radioprotection by EAP is best comparable to that of protection demonstrated by the grape fruit flavonone, naringin, in our earlier studies in mouse bone marrow cells.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging