Acute kidney injury (AKI) in liver cirrhosis is associated with poor clinical outcomes including an increased long and short-term mortality. The common type of AKI observed in patients with cirrhosis are prerenal AKI (PRA), hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Despite the growing knowledge and uniform definition for the diagnosis of AKI, there are several challenges including, early diagnosis and management. Precisely differentiating the type of AKI is critical, as therapies differ significantly. In this review, we summarize AKI in liver cirrhosis, their definition, pathophysiology and deficiencies of using the existing biomarker, serum creatinine. We outline the current clinical evidence on the novel biomarker urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and its potential role as a biomarker in the early detection, differentiation and prognostication of AKI. This review also briefly talks about other forthcoming biomarkers which hold promise in the management of AKI in liver cirrhosis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical