Purpose: To investigate the urine protein (UP) and urine creatinine (UC) ratio in diabetes mellitus and report its influence as a risk factor for the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: In total, 150 diabetic patients presenting to the outpatient department were included. Detailed history with informed consent and ophthalmic examination, including visual assessment, external ocular examination, anterior segment evaluation, dilated fundus examination by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and indirect ophthalmoscopy, was done. The early morning spot urine sample was used to determine spot urine protein creatinine ratio. Association with hypertension, fasting blood sugar (FBS), and HBA1C (glycosylated Hb) were also noted. Results: Urinary PCR increased with the severity of the diabetic retinopathy (P < 0.001). HbA1c, FBS, and duration of diabetes had a direct correlation with urine PCR. ROC curve analysis showed that the optimal PCR cut-off value for predicting the risk of onset DR was 0.65. Retinopathy progressed with increasing urine PCR. Spot urine PCR strongly correlates with stages of diabetic retinopathy and proteinuria measured in 24-h urine samples. Conclusion: The study showed that urine PCR can be a marker for risk and progression of diabetic retinopathy.
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