Utility of oral mucosa as a substrate for the serodiagnosis of pemphigus: A descriptive analysis

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: The indirect immunofluorescence test is useful in the serodiagnosis of pemphigus. As indirect immunofluorescence titers correlate with disease activity in pemphigus, it is often used as a monitoring tool. The sensitivity of indirect immunofluorescence depends on the substrate used, and the preferred substrates are monkey esophagus for pemphigus vulgaris and normal human skin for pemphigus foliaceus. AIMS: We evaluated oral mucosa as a substrate for indirect immunofluorescence in pemphigus. METHODS: Fifty patients with pemphigus (40 with pemphigus vulgaris and ten with pemphigus foliaceus) and 50 controls were enrolled for study. Demographic and clinical details were recorded and indirect immunofluorescence using two substrates (oral mucosa and normal human skin) was carried out in serial dilution. Desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and 3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was also evaluated simultaneously. RESULTS: Indirect immunofluorescence was positive in 40 patients (80%) with oral mucosa substrate and 34 patients (68%) with normal human skin substrate. Circulating antibodies were detected with oral mucosa in 33 (82.5%) of the 40 pemphigus vulgaris patients and in 26 (65%) patients using normal human skin. Antibodies were detected in eight of the ten pemphigus foliaceus patients (80%) with normal human skin and in seven (70%) patients with oral mucosa. Dsg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was positive in 45 (90%) patients, and 37 of these were also indirect immunofluorescence positive with oral mucosa. In the five Dsg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-negative patients, indirect immunofluorescence with oral mucosa was positive in three. LIMITATIONS: A comparison of oral mucosa with monkey esophagus could not be performed. CONCLUSION: Oral mucosa is a suitable and sensitive substrate for indirect immunofluorescence in pemphigus. Further studies comparing the sensitivity of indirect immunofluorescence using oral mucosa with monkey esophagus are recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)156-161
Number of pages6
JournalIndian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Volume88
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 02-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Dermatology
  • Infectious Diseases

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