Utilization of self-medication and prescription drugs among 15-year-old children from the German GINIplus birth cohort

Salvatore Italia, Helmut Brand, Joachim Heinrich, Dietrich Berdel, Andrea von Berg, Silke Britta Wolfenstetter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: The objective was to analyse paediatric drug utilization in relation to self-medication, prescription drugs, and the most reported therapeutic drug categories. Methods: Data were collected for 3013 children on their utilization of drugs (4-week prevalence) from a German birth cohort study (GINIplus, 15-year follow-up) using a self-administered questionnaire. The drugs were grouped into over-the-counter drugs and prescription drugs, and were classified according to the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system. Predictors were analysed using a logistic regression model with four independent variables (gender, study area, maternal education, and parental income). Results: Some 69% of the reported 2489 drugs were over-the-counter drugs, and 31% were prescription drugs. The 4-week prevalence for using any type of drug was 41.0%. Drug categories with high prevalence rates of use were antiinflammatory drugs (10.3%), analgesics (7.1%), and antiallergics (5.0%). Factors associated with higher use of over-the-counter drugs were female gender (OR=1.56, p<0.0001) and higher maternal education (OR=1.60, p=0.0021; university degree vs. secondary high school). Maternal education was correlated with the use of prescribed or self-medicated antiallergics (positive association) and contraceptives (negative association). The use of antibiotics, methylphenidate, and drugs for thyroid therapy was associated with lower parental income. Conclusion: The use of over-the-counter drugs in 15-year-old children from the GINIplus birth cohort is very common and is predicted by socioeconomic factors such as maternal education. This has to be considered by health care managers when deciding about the exclusion of over-the-counter drugs (normally used for self-medication) from reimbursement or the deregulation of drug sales.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1133-1143
Number of pages11
JournalPharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Volume24
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-11-2015

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Self Medication
Prescription Drugs
Nonprescription Drugs
Parturition
Mothers
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Drug Utilization
Education
Anti-Allergic Agents
Logistic Models
Drug Prescriptions
Methylphenidate
Contraceptive Agents
Analgesics
Thyroid Gland
Cohort Studies
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Pediatrics
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Delivery of Health Care

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Epidemiology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Italia, Salvatore ; Brand, Helmut ; Heinrich, Joachim ; Berdel, Dietrich ; von Berg, Andrea ; Wolfenstetter, Silke Britta. / Utilization of self-medication and prescription drugs among 15-year-old children from the German GINIplus birth cohort. In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2015 ; Vol. 24, No. 11. pp. 1133-1143.
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abstract = "Purpose: The objective was to analyse paediatric drug utilization in relation to self-medication, prescription drugs, and the most reported therapeutic drug categories. Methods: Data were collected for 3013 children on their utilization of drugs (4-week prevalence) from a German birth cohort study (GINIplus, 15-year follow-up) using a self-administered questionnaire. The drugs were grouped into over-the-counter drugs and prescription drugs, and were classified according to the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system. Predictors were analysed using a logistic regression model with four independent variables (gender, study area, maternal education, and parental income). Results: Some 69{\%} of the reported 2489 drugs were over-the-counter drugs, and 31{\%} were prescription drugs. The 4-week prevalence for using any type of drug was 41.0{\%}. Drug categories with high prevalence rates of use were antiinflammatory drugs (10.3{\%}), analgesics (7.1{\%}), and antiallergics (5.0{\%}). Factors associated with higher use of over-the-counter drugs were female gender (OR=1.56, p<0.0001) and higher maternal education (OR=1.60, p=0.0021; university degree vs. secondary high school). Maternal education was correlated with the use of prescribed or self-medicated antiallergics (positive association) and contraceptives (negative association). The use of antibiotics, methylphenidate, and drugs for thyroid therapy was associated with lower parental income. Conclusion: The use of over-the-counter drugs in 15-year-old children from the GINIplus birth cohort is very common and is predicted by socioeconomic factors such as maternal education. This has to be considered by health care managers when deciding about the exclusion of over-the-counter drugs (normally used for self-medication) from reimbursement or the deregulation of drug sales.",
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Utilization of self-medication and prescription drugs among 15-year-old children from the German GINIplus birth cohort. / Italia, Salvatore; Brand, Helmut; Heinrich, Joachim; Berdel, Dietrich; von Berg, Andrea; Wolfenstetter, Silke Britta.

In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, Vol. 24, No. 11, 01.11.2015, p. 1133-1143.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Utilization of self-medication and prescription drugs among 15-year-old children from the German GINIplus birth cohort

AU - Italia, Salvatore

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AU - von Berg, Andrea

AU - Wolfenstetter, Silke Britta

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AB - Purpose: The objective was to analyse paediatric drug utilization in relation to self-medication, prescription drugs, and the most reported therapeutic drug categories. Methods: Data were collected for 3013 children on their utilization of drugs (4-week prevalence) from a German birth cohort study (GINIplus, 15-year follow-up) using a self-administered questionnaire. The drugs were grouped into over-the-counter drugs and prescription drugs, and were classified according to the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system. Predictors were analysed using a logistic regression model with four independent variables (gender, study area, maternal education, and parental income). Results: Some 69% of the reported 2489 drugs were over-the-counter drugs, and 31% were prescription drugs. The 4-week prevalence for using any type of drug was 41.0%. Drug categories with high prevalence rates of use were antiinflammatory drugs (10.3%), analgesics (7.1%), and antiallergics (5.0%). Factors associated with higher use of over-the-counter drugs were female gender (OR=1.56, p<0.0001) and higher maternal education (OR=1.60, p=0.0021; university degree vs. secondary high school). Maternal education was correlated with the use of prescribed or self-medicated antiallergics (positive association) and contraceptives (negative association). The use of antibiotics, methylphenidate, and drugs for thyroid therapy was associated with lower parental income. Conclusion: The use of over-the-counter drugs in 15-year-old children from the GINIplus birth cohort is very common and is predicted by socioeconomic factors such as maternal education. This has to be considered by health care managers when deciding about the exclusion of over-the-counter drugs (normally used for self-medication) from reimbursement or the deregulation of drug sales.

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